The Handbook on Socially Interactive Agents: 20 years of Research on Embodied Conversational Agents, Intelligent Virtual Agents, and Social Robotics Volume 1: Methods, Behavior, CognitionSeptember 2021
  • Association for Computing Machinery
  • New York
  • NY
  • United States
Appears In:


The Handbook on Socially Interactive Agents provides a comprehensive overview of the research fields of Embodied Conversational Agents, Intelligent Virtual Agents, and Social Robotics. Socially Interactive Agents (SIAs), whether virtually or physically embodied, are autonomous agents that are able to perceive an environment including people or other agents, reason, decide how to interact, and express attitudes such as emotions, engagement, or empathy. They are capable of interacting with people and one another in a socially intelligent manner using multimodal communicative behaviors, with the goal to support humans in various domains.

Written by international experts in their respective fields, the book summarizes research in the many important research communities pertinent for SIAs, while discussing current challenges and future directions. The handbook provides easy access to modeling and studying SIAs for researchers and students, and aims at further bridging the gap between the research communities involved.

In two volumes, the book clearly structures the vast body of research. The first volume starts by introducing what is involved in SIAs research, in particular research methodologies and ethical implications of developing SIAs. It further examines research on appearance and behavior, focusing on multimodality. Finally, social cognition for SIAs is investigated using different theoretical models and phenomena such as theory of mind or pro-sociality. The second volume starts with perspectives on interaction, examined from different angles such as interaction in social space, group interaction, or long-term interaction. It also includes an extensive overview summarizing research and systems of human–agent platforms and of some of the major application areas of SIAs such as education, aging support, autism, and games.

September 2021, pp xvii–xx

In preparation for writing this foreword, I looked through old emails (really old emails) dating back to early 1998, when we were planning the “First Workshop on Embodied Conversational Characters.” In and amongst detailed menu planning for the workshop (...

Introduction to Socially Interactive Agents
September 2021, pp 105–146
Natural Language Understanding in Socially Interactive Agents
September 2021, pp 147–172
Gesture Generation
September 2021, pp 213–258
Theory of Mind and Joint Attention
September 2021, pp 311–348
September 2021, pp 349–384
Rapport Between Humans and Socially Interactive Agents
September 2021, pp 433–462
Culture for Socially Interactive Agents
September 2021, pp 463–494
Authors’ Biographies/Index
September 2021, pp 495–518


  • Birgit Lugrin
    Julius-Maximilian University of Würzburg
  • Catherine Pelachaud
    Universite Paris 8 Vincennes-St Denis
  • David Rood Traum
    University of Southern California


About Cookies On This Site

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website.

Learn more

Got it!