Designing for Student-Directedness: How K–12 Teachers Utilize Peers to Support Projects
June 2022, Article No.: 10, pp 1–18

Student-directed projects—projects in which students have individual control over what they create and how to create it—are a promising practice for supporting the development of conceptual understanding and personal interest in K–12 computer science ...

Combining Learning and Engagement Strategies in a Software Testing Learning Environment
June 2022, Article No.: 11, pp 1–25

There continues to be an increase in enrollments in various computing programs at academic institutions due to many job opportunities available in the information, communication, and technology sectors. This enrollment surge has presented several ...

How Do Educational Experiences Predict Computing Identity?
June 2022, Article No.: 12, pp 1–28

Despite increasing demands for skilled workers within the technological domain, there is still a deficit in the number of graduates in computing fields (computer science, information technology, and computer engineering). Understanding the factors that ...

Gender Diversity in Computer Science at a Large Public R1 Research University: Reporting on a Self-study
June 2022, Article No.: 13, pp 1–31

With the number of jobs in computer occupations on the rise, there is a greater need for computer science (CS) graduates than ever. At the same time, most CS departments across the country are only seeing 25–30% of women students in their classes, meaning ...

Open Access
Beyond Programming: A Computer-Based Assessment of Computational Thinking Competency
June 2022, Article No.: 14, pp 1–27

Computational Thinking (CT), entailing both domain-general and domain-specific skills, is a competency fundamental to computing education and beyond. However, as a cross-domain competency, appropriate assessment design and method remain equivocal. Indeed, ...

Toward a Framework for Teaching Artificial Intelligence to a Higher Education Audience
June 2022, Article No.: 15, pp 1–29

Artificial Intelligence and its sub-disciplines are becoming increasingly relevant in numerous areas of academia as well as industry and can now be considered a core area of Computer Science [84]. The Higher Education sector are offering more courses in ...

Creativity in CS1: A Literature Review
June 2022, Article No.: 16, pp 1–26

Computer science is a fast-growing field in today’s digitized age, and working in this industry often requires creativity and innovative thought. An issue within computer science education, however, is that large introductory programming courses often ...

Open Access
Through (Tracking) Their Eyes: Abstraction and Complexity in Program Comprehension
June 2022, Article No.: 17, pp 1–33

Previous studies on writing and understanding programs presented evidence that programmers beyond a novice stage utilize plans or plan-like structures. Other studies on code composition showed that learners have difficulties with writing, reading, and ...

Open Access
Can Computing Be Diversified on “Principles” Alone? Exploring the Role of AP Computer Science Courses in Students’ Major and Career Intentions
June 2022, Article No.: 18, pp 1–26

The Advanced Placement Computer Science Principles (APCSP) course was introduced in 2016 to address long-standing gender and racial/ethnic disparities in the United States among students taking Advanced Placement Computer Science (APCS) in high school, as ...

Elementary Computational Thinking Instruction and Assessment: A Learning Trajectory Perspective
June 2022, Article No.: 19, pp 1–26

There is little empirical research related to how elementary students develop computational thinking (CT) and how they apply CT in problem-solving. To address this gap in knowledge, this study made use of learning trajectories (LTs; hypothesized learning ...

Shifting Beliefs in Computer Science: Change in CS Student Mindsets
June 2022, Article No.: 20, pp 1–24

Two studies investigated change in computer science (CS) students’ implicit intelligence beliefs. Across both studies, we found that the strength of incremental and entity beliefs changed across time. In Study 1, we found that incremental beliefs ...

Coding with Minecraft: The Development of Middle School Students’ Computational Thinking
June 2022, Article No.: 21, pp 1–19

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of Minecraft-based coding activities on computational thinking (CT) of middle school students. In the study, CT was conceptualized so that it encapsulates not only the knowledge of computational concepts (...



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